The Delphi technique has been used for meeting several challenges, including [1, 2, 3]:

  • Clarifying and exploring objectives, indicators, criteria, measures and options while avoiding social pressures and psychological distractions;
  • Exploring perceptions associated with the impact of potential options or measures with the aim of obtaining the pros and cons arguments associated with their implementation;
  • Collecting information and experts perceptions to select drivers for building scenarios;
  • Gathering evidence and preferences for weighting criteria and building value functions;
  • Forecasting by exploring what is likely to happen, what may change, and what effects can be anticipated;
  • Planning for resource allocation by exploring stakeholder’s priorities, motivations and values.

Delphi has been applied in a large number of domains [3] including business, economics, finance, health care, sales and strategic planning.

Welphi Portfolio

Real-life cases where Welphi has been used for


Euro-Healthy Research project Building a composite index to measure population health on the European regions. Welphi was used in three distinct Delphi processes: (1) for selecting indicators, (2) for defining the shapes of the indicators’ value functions and (3) for weighting the indicators.

Anicare, Erasmus +

Anicare ERASMUS+ European project aiming to implement an innovative pedagogical approach to support farm animal welfare teaching through peer to peer debates. It targets to promote critical thinking and inspire a behavioral change while respecting farmers’ emancipation, within a wider perception of animal welfare.

Fórum Brasileiro de Mudança do Clima

Brazilian Forum for Climate Change Defining and prioritizing measures to be implemented by the Brazilian government with the objective of reducing carbon emissions, consulting actors of the society and of the Brazilian Government.


ENERPHI Promoting the Welphi platform to support students in teaching participatory web-Delphi processes for participatory processes in Energy decision-making contexts.

Impact HTA

Impact HTA research project looking at new and improved methods across ten thematic areas aiming at understanding variations in costs and health outcomes within and across countries, and integrating clinical and economic data from different sources to improve methods in economic evaluation in the context of HTA and health system performance measurement.

Rede Social de Lisboa

Lisbon Forum of the Social Action Network Selecting the objectives of the Social Development Plan (2016-2019) of the municipality of Lisbon, Portugal.

Additionally, Welphi has been used as a tool for conducting Delphi processes in MSc dissertations in various areas of applications such as Biomedical Engineering, Energy Engineering and Management and Industrial Engineering and Management among others.

Reference papers of applications using Welphi:

Vieira, A., Oliveira, M. and Bana e Costa, C., Enhancing knowledge construction processes within multicriteria decision analysis: The Collaborative Value Modelling framework. 2019, Omega ( in press).

  • Alvarenga, A., Bana e Costa, C., Borrell, C., Ferreira, P., Freitas, Â., Freitas, L., Oliveira, M., Rodrigues, T., Santana, P., Lopes Santos, M. and Vieira, A., Scenarios for population health inequalities in 2030 in Europe: the EURO-HEALTHY project experience. 2019, International Journal for Equity in Health. 18(100).
  • Sources:

  • [1] Linstone, H.A. and M. Turoff, The Delphi method: Techniques and applications. 2002, Reading: Addison-Wesley.
  • [2] Gupta, U.G. and R.E. Clarke, Theory and applications of the Delphi technique: A bibliography (1975–1994). Technological forecasting and social change, 1996. 53(2): 185-211.
  • [3] Warner, L.A., Using the Delphi Technique to Achieve Consensus: A Tool for Guiding Extension Programs. 2014, Agricultural Education and Communication Department, UF/IFAS Extension.